Glaucoma

Glaucoma, the silent thief of sight is a term used to describe a group of diseases of the eye characterized by progressive and irreversible damage to the optic nerve (nerve of the eye responsible for vision) and which if untreated can lead to blindness. Though raised pressure of the eye (pressure maintained by fluid in the eye) is an important risk factor, a few individuals can develop glaucoma even with normal pressure of the eye.

How glaucoma affects your eye?



Are You At Risk For Glaucoma?

If you answer YES to any of these questions below, then you are at high risk:


Yes No


Yes No


Yes No


Yes No


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Yes No


If you are at high risk, undergo a glaucoma screening at Tej Eye Center immediately.
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Glaucoma



Prevalence

  • Due to its asymptomatic nature and subtle clinical signs, a significant proportion of Glaucoma remains undetected in people worldwide.
  • To date, the global prevalence of glaucoma is 64.3 million which is predicated to increase by 18% in 2020 and 74% in 2040, predominantly affecting the inhabitants from Asian and African ethnicity. Women comprise more than 50% of all cases.
  • More than 12 million people in India have Glaucoma – but only half know they have it.
  • 25% of Glaucoma patients present to eye surgeon when one eye vision is lost and 8-10% people know about the disease when 80% nerve fibers are lost.
Prevalence



did you know

  • Glaucoma is the foremost cause of irreversible blindness and vision loss worldwide.
  • Glaucoma can take as much as 40% of vision without a person noticing.
  • Glaucoma can happen in one eye or both eyes.
  • Some people with high eye pressure don’t get Glaucoma and there is a type of glaucoma that happens in people with normal eye pressure.
  • The amount of eye pressure that’s normal varies from person- what’s normal for one person could be high for another.
  • Glaucoma can be inherited!!Relatives of glaucoma patients are 5 times more likely to have glaucoma as well.


Types of Glaucoma

There are two major types of Glaucoma:

Chronic or Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma (POAG)

The chronic open-angle form of glaucoma is the most common form. Damage to vision is gradual and generally painless.

Closed or Acute Angle – Closure Glaucoma

In the closed or acute form, the intraocular pressure increases rapidly due to a sudden and severe block of fluid drainage within the eye. Significant symptoms indicating the presence of acute glaucoma appear immediately. This condition has to be treated quickly by an ophthalmologist otherwise blindness may occur.

Symptoms

The most common type of glaucoma (open-angle glaucoma) often has no symptoms rather than slow vision loss. Angle-closure glaucoma although rare is a medical emergency and its symptoms include eye pain with nausea and sudden visual disturbance.

Inability to adjust the eyes to darkened rooms, such as theaters Poor night vision Frequent changes in eye glass prescription
Gradual loss of peripheral vision Blurred vision Feeling of a blind area in the eye
Seeing rainbow colored halos around lights Severe eye pain, facial pain, nausea and vomiting Red eye

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FACT OR MYTH

  • Myth: It only happens to senior citizens.
    Fact: Everyone from babies to elderly people can develop glaucoma. The risk increases after the age of 40
  • Myth: It’s curable.
    Fact: Glaucoma is not curable and lost vision cannot be restored. However, further deterioration can be prevented by effective and timely treatment.
  • Myth: There are symptoms to warn me.
    Fact: Glaucoma is known as the silent thief of sight and is a disease without noticeable symptoms. Patients can progress to advanced stage of glaucoma before they can notice a problem in vision.


  • Myth: Glaucoma is only caused by increased IOP
    Fact: Raised intraocular pressure is a risk factor but those with normal IOP can also have Glaucoma.
  • Myth: Glaucoma can only be inherited
    Fact: Glaucoma can happen without any family history, although it is a risk factor.
  • Myth: Glaucoma always leads to blindness.
    Fact: Nearly 90% of all Glaucoma related blindness can be preventable with proper treatment and timely diagnosis.



SCREENING TESTS FOR GLAUCOMA

REGULAR EYE EXAMINATION PLAYS A KEY ROLE IN DETECTING GLAUCOMA, TESTS INCLUDE THE FOLLOWING



Tonometry

Inner eye pressure (IOP)

Ophthalmoscopy (Dilated eye exam)

Shape and colour of the optic nerve

Perimetry(Visual field test)

Complete field of vision

Gonioscopy

Angle in the eye where the iris meets the cornea

Pachymetry

Thickness of the cornea

OCT (Ocular coherence tomography)

Just like CT Scan, enables accurate and reproducible measurements of ONH and RNFL parameters, analyze glaucoma progression


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Remember there is no cure for Glaucoma. Vision lost from the disease cannot be restored. Early intervention is the key to preventing blindness from Glaucoma.


Right way to instilled glaucoma eye drop
Angle & Eye Pressure Measurement
Angle & eye pressure measurement
Optic Disc And Visual Field
Optic disc and visual field evaluation in glaucoma


Current treatment options:

Glaucoma treatment currently falls within three basic categories – medication, incisional surgery and laser treatments. All of these are aimed at lowering intra ocular pressure (IOP) within the eye.

While these are effective for most patients, many continue to lose vision through damage to the optic nerve. For them, there is great need for treatments that stop progression independent of IOP.

Eye drops

Eye drops standard medication option for glaucoma patients. They lower fluid pressure by stimulating the eyes own drainage system or by decreasing the eye’s fluid production.

Laser light

Laser light is used to open drainage channels in the eye.

Open – angle Glaucoma – laser treatment includes
  • Selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT)
  • Argon laser trabeculoplasty (ALT)
  • Trans-scleral photocoagulation

Closed – angle Glaucoma, laser treatment includes
  • Laser iridotomy
  • Peripheral iridoplasty
Surgery

Surgery is used to either open the natural drainage channels in the eye, to insert tiny shunts to improve drainage or to remove that part of the eye that is preventing fluid drainage. There are two primary kinds of non-laser surgery:

  • Trabeculectomy is the most common kind of surgery and creates a controlled leak of fluid from the eye.
  • Goniotomy is a surgical option for babies and young children with congenital glaucoma, when a special lens is required to see the structure of the inner eye
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